Battery is generally cylindrical in shape with two terminals, one positive electrode and one negative electrode that conduct electricity along with a substance called electrolyte, that works on the electrodes, chemically and help convert into electrical energy. There is a copper wire that connects the two electrodes. Materials that are used in batteries are carbon, alkaline, chlorine, lithium ion, lead, nickel, sodium, silicon, copper, etc.
Batteries are classified into two- Dry cells and wet cells. The wet cell batteries are also termed storage battery ( VGP-BPS8) as they can be recharged as many times as possible. Batteries are also divided as rechargeable and non-rechargeable or disposable batteries for vgp-bps9. The second type is again termed as primary cells, used till the chemical that produce the electrical current supply is fully consumed, at which point the battery is not needed anymore. These types of batteries are used very commonly in small and portable piece of equipments that drain low current.
The other type is rechargeable or in other words secondary ells that can be "refueled" even after being completely consumed. For recharging, these batteries need some external help from devices as chargers or re-chargers.
In the present world due to the development of science and technology almost everything (papers, plastics,aluminum, etc.) can be recycled without wasting it by just throwing it after use. Thus we see that recycling is a procedure by which waste products are recovered for reusing, which is also known as waste management.
ecycling falls under electronic waste or e-waste. Here any discarded, broken or unwanted electrical or electronic equipments, containing toxic materials are recycled for further use. Batteries like, nickel-cadmium, lead, lithium batteries are made to reuse as the chemicals present in them can cause harm to the environment if allowed to stay long in open air after being discarded by the users. Moreover batteries are regarded as the most expensive energy source and their production requires much valuable recourse, so they are recycled so as to restore those valuable materials from those old and used batteries through battery recyling.
Cadmium is a heavy metal and can cause pollution if burned or cremated. To avoid lead pollution lead-aced batteries are processed. This program is considered to be highly successful. Lithium-ioncan be very dangerous if exposed to high temperature or sunlight, it can ignite or explode. Therefore battery recycling is a must if we want to protect our environment.
The Recycling Process:
First of all, the batteries to be recycled are sorted according to chemistries such as nickel-cadmium, nickel-metal-hydride, lithium , alkaline etc. The combustible material, such as plastics and insulation, is then removed with a gas fired thermal oxidizer, which is the first step in the recycling process. Most recycling plants have scrubbers where the gases from the thermal oxidizer are neutralized to remove pollutants, producing clean, naked cells that contain precious metal content.
The metal in the are then heated to liquefy, after they have been hacked into little pieces. Black slag left by burned out non-metallic substances are scraped off with a slag arm, and the different alloys that settle according to weight are skimmed off. Some plants pour the liquid metals directly into (65 pounds) or ‘hogs' (2000 pounds) without separating on site, which are then shipped to metal recovery plants to produce nickel, chromium and iron re-melt alloy for the manufacturing of other metal products.
State and Federal Regulations in the United States:
The Mercury-Containing and Rechargeable Battery Management Act was passed in 1996 by the U.S. Congress which requires regulated batteries such as Ni-CD batteries and sealed lead-acid batteries to:
1. be easily removable from consumer products to make VGP-BPS9/B easier to recover them for recycling
2. include in the label the battery chemistry, the "three chasing arrows" symbol, and a phrase that instructs users to properly recycle or dispose the battery
3. provide national uniformity in collection, storage, and transport
4. phase out the use of certain mercury-containing batteries
By recycling batteries the environment is not being polluted nearly as much, many natural resources are saved due to the rechargeable lso. There is a large variety of websites on the Internet with more quality information on recycling batteries.